Home | Journal Issues | Vol.59 , No.3 , 2017

Vol.59 , No.3 , 2017


  • Article title : Post-Operative Computed Tomography to Evaluate the Accuracy of Thoracic and Lumbosacral Spine Pedicular Screw Fixation
    Description :

    Saif M.Kani* CABOS
    Ali Bakir. Al-Hilli** FIBMS
    Dawood S. Al-Obidi** FRCS

    Background: pedicular screw fixation is rapidly becoming a widely used method of spinal instrumentation. Despite improvement in design of instruments and surgical technique and the use of intra-operative fluoroscopy, pedicle cortical perforations occur endangering nearby neurovascular or extra vertebral structures.
    Objective: This is a prospective (consecutive cases study) designed for Evaluation of incidence of pedicle screw misplacement in our study sample, compare our results to what is published in literature.
    Patients and Method: This study involved 25 adult patients ( 10 males and 15 females ) their age ranged between ( 18 and 70 years) who underwent spinal surgery with pedicle screw fixation for different disorders of thoracic and lumbosacral spine with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Computed Tomography (CT) scan within one month was done for all patients to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. Any new neurological symptoms was recorded and correlated with screw misplacement.
    Results: 122screws inserted in 25 patients with an overall accuracy of (90.16%), frank misplacement of (4.09% )and questionable penetration of ( 5.73%) , new neurological deficit was seen in (20%) among all misplaced screws and in one case (4%) out of the 25 cases.
    Conclusion: pedicle screw fixation surgery is a demanding procedure. Our incidence of screw misplacement is compatible with the lower published results in the literature. Not all patients with frank penetration of the pedicle cortical outlines developed complications.
    Keywords: Computed tomography, Pedicular Screw fixation, accuracy.

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  • Article title : Short segment versus long segment posterior pedicular fixation of thoracolumbar fracture
    Description :

    Hayder A. Alhemiary* FICMS

    Dhuha F. Almayoof** ABHS


    Background: Fracture dislocation at the junction between thoracic and lumber segments of spinal column by direct or indirect high energy force which is usually managed with more than three vertebral level fixation. Short segment stabilization have a wide range of benefits including length of time utilized for surgical intervention, reduce functional and psychological disability postoperatively and local surgical site complications.
    Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of posterior short segment pedicle stabilization in T-L fracture clinically and radiologically. Also to compare outcome of pedicle fixation by long segment and short segment an finally we try to insert at least one screw in the fracture vertebra to strengthen the stabilization in case of short segment stabilisation.
    Patients and Method: This is a prospective study of 40 patients operated in medical city from Jan. 2013 to Dec. 2015.complaining from T-L fracture (T12, L1, L2) due to any type of trauma. A total of 17 of the patients (13 male and 4 female) underwent long segment fixation (group A) whereas 23(15 male and 8 female) of those patients have short segment fixation (group B). Long segment fixation includes two levels above and one or two level below with or without single screw placed in the vertebra that is broken. While short fixation involving vertebra above and vertebra below the fracture one.
    Results: In tis prospective male commonly involved with the mean age 35-40 years in both groups, also most common involved vertebrae was 1st lumber. According to Modified Mcnab criteria, good result acquired by most of the patients, and using radiological Cobb angle evaluation significant loss of correction occur.
    Conclusion: Short segment fixation in Thoracolumar region as effective as long segment. Short segment fixations are low coast with little complications at surgical site and need less blood replacement with less restriction of movement at the thoracolumbar junction.
    Keywords: Thoracolumber vertebrae, fracture, short segment, long segment, fixation, intermediate screw.

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  • Article title : Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection using Endo GIA Radial Reload Stapler: early results (case series)
    Description :

    Ramiz S. Mukhtar* FRCS
    Mohammed Q. Abdul Jabbar** DGS CABS MRCS
    Raid A. Aziz *** FIBMS (CVT)

    Background: Laparoscopic colectomy is performed in an increasing number of institutions as a minimally invasive treatment for benign and malignant large bowel disease. Laparoscopic rectal surgery enables more accurate visualization of the anatomical structure in the pelvic cavity for selected patients with tumors in the middle and low rectum.
    Objectives: To determine the early outcome of patient who underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection using radial reload stapler.
    Patients and methods: This is a prospective study of 8 patients with low or mid rectal cancer who underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection between January 2017 till June 2017 at Saint Raphael hospital.
    Results: Eight patients underwent elective laparoscopic low anterior resection, 5 (62.5%) of them were male and 3(37.5%) were female. In 6 (75%) patients complete rectal transaction done only radial reload stapler, while the other 2 (25%) patients complete transaction couldn’t be done only by the radial reload stapler and they need one Endo GIATM (Covidien) medium thick purple stapler. There was no anastomotic leakage, no wound infection and no mortality.
    Conclusion: The primary results and early outcome of this study showed that laparoscopic low anterior resection using radial reload is a safe procedure without increasing the risk of anastomotic leak. Further analysis in a large series is needed to draw definitive conclusions.
    Keywords: laparoscopic low anterior resection, rectal cancer, anastomotic leakage.

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  • Article title : Pre-operative serum TSH level estimation for predicting malignant nodular thyroid disease
    Description :

    Kotaiba Kh. Hamdi* FIBMS
    Basim R. Ghadhban** FJBMS
    Hussein Ali Turkey*** CABS
    Tharwat I.Sulaiman** CABS, FRCS, FACS

    Background: the aim of this study was to assess the value of serum thyroid–stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in predicting malignancy in patients with nodular thyroid disease (NTD).

    Objective: The aim was to examine the relationship between preoperative TSH and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
    Patients and Method: all patients with NTD who were admitted in the first surgical unit of Baghdad teaching hospital and assessed for preoperative TSH level before subjecting them for thyroidectomy from first of April 2014 to 31 of January 2016, were included in the study. A preoperative database sheets including Age, gender, nodule size, and pathology were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were predictive of malignancy.
    Results: 291 patients were included in our study after exclusion of 20 patients,
    Four patients with histopathological results other than differentiated thyroid cancer (anaplastic, medullary carcinoma) and sixteen patients were on thyroxine therapy.
    The overall rate of malignancy was 11%.The rate was slightly higher at extremes of age .the mean TSH was higher in the malignant group (2.07 vs 1.07, p=0.02). The rate of malignancy was 40% in patients with TSH level > 5.5 μIU/mL. Logistic regression analysis revealed that TSH level was the only significant risk factor for malignancy.
    Conclusion: the serum TSH level may be useful in predicting the probability of cancer and optimizing the extent of thyroidectomy in patients with NTD.
    Keywords: Thyroid stimulating hormone; Thyroid malignancy; Nodular thyroid disease.

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  • Article title : Tattoo Removal using (1064 nm and 532 nm) Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser
    Description :

    Athir M. AL Saad* FIBMS, DLM
    Abd Alkhaliq S. Abdullah* FIBMS

    Background: A tattoo is a foreign material implanted into the dermis by needle or some other trauma that results in a visible mark in the skin .either decorative or cosmetic tattoos or may be traumatic tattoos resulting from car accident or iatrogenic tattoos placed in radiation ports. There are many ways for tattoo removal one of them is laser treatment by Q-Switched (1064 nm and 532 nm) Nd: YAG Laser.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Q-Switched Nd: YAG (1064 &532 nm) Laser in treatment of tattoos.
    Patient and Method: Nineteen lesions of tattoo in different body sites in nine patients collected in private plastic surgery clinic in Baghdad from 1st of September 2010 till end of February 2011 treated by Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser with energy density 8.5 J/cm2 and multiple sessions of treatment up to five with to 6weeks interval.
    Results: The response of tattoo to laser treatment was variable from patient to patient and from session to session of same tattoo. In general the results were encouraging in majority of lesions except in 5 lesions in which ink has been used for tattooing introduced so deep by manual pricking with needle.
    Conclusion: switch Nd-YAG laser is a safe and effective option for tattoo removal.
    Keywords: - Tattoo, Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser.

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  • Article title : Causes of short stature in Iraqi hospital based study patients
    Description :

    Munib A. AlZubaidi* FICMS (Ped)
    Maher M. Saleh** FICMS (Ped)
    Zahraa M. Jawad*** FICMS (Ped)

    Backgrounds: Growth is an important objective parameter of general health of the child. Normal growth requires adequate nutrition along with various hormonal stimuli. Short stature is a common cause of referral to pediatric endocrinologists.
    Objectives: To find the causes of short stature in patients referred to pediatric endocrinology clinic of children welfare teaching hospital, the significance of bone age assessment and the variation of growth hormone level in these patients.
    Patients and methods: This prospective study was carried out in the endocrine clinic of Children Welfare Teaching Hospital/Medical City over ten months period, included 150 patients. A proper detailed medical history was taken, physical examination performed included growth parameters, and general investigations with bone age, thyroid function test, celiac screening and growth hormone level were done for all patients. Growth hormone stimulation test was done when indicated and phenotype, Karyotyping was done in selected cases.
    Result: The total number of patients included in this study was150, ranging from ≥ 2 to 16 years old, and the male to female ratio was 1.14:1.The relationship between age and gender is significant(p-value 0.04).The commonest etiology was endocrine causes in 92(61.33%), non-endocrine causes in 34(22.67%) and normal variant in 24(16%) patients. Bone age was delayed in 86(57.33%) and normal in 6(4%) of endocrine cause which is highly significant (p-value< 0.001), and in non-endocrine causes it was delayed in 24(16%) and not delayed in 10(6.67%) patients which is significant (p-value<0.01). Growth hormone level was deficient in 80(53.33%) patients of endocrine causes of short stature which is highly significant (p-value <0.001%), and deficient in 15(10%) patients of non-endocrine causes which is significant (p-value<0.03%).
    Conclusion: Growth hormone deficiency, familial short stature and constitutional growth delay were the leading causes of short stature in patients referred .Growth hormone deficiency is the commonest cause of short stature in those patients, bone age is a corner stone in evaluating short stature and it gets delayed in some cases with systemic and endocrine causes other than growth hormone deficiency and constitutional growth delay.
    Keywords: Growth hormone, Growth retardation, bone age, short stature.

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  • Article title : Depressive Symptoms & Associated Stressors among Medical Students
    Description :

    Firas A. Al-Kadhimi*     CABMS
    Nesif J. Al-Hemiary**    FIBMS
    Ahmed Hassan***          FIBMS

    Background: Depressive symptoms are commonly occurring in many psychiatric illnesses. Many people experience the first symptoms of depression during their college years. Unfortunately, many college students who have depression are not getting the help they need.
    Objectives : to find out the point prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms in students of Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, and its association with life stressors.
    Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study of students of Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad during March and April 2013. A random sample was chosen and each student was asked to fill a questionnaire that contains demographic information, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Student's Stressors Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (V.18). Appropriate tests were used for significance.
    Results: A total of 250 students (140 females and 110 males) was surveyed which included 50 students from each year. Female to male ratio was 1.27. Their age ranged between 18–45 years and the mean age was 22.2 ±2.3.Twenty-eight percent have clinically significant depressive symptoms, 12.4% have milder form of depression according to PHQ-9. Clinical depressive symptoms found among 37.2 % (borderline clinical depression to extremely severe depression) according to BDI-II. The mean of life stressors scores was 97.98 out of 180 (SD=18.68). Educational, psychological, and environmental stressors were the most common types of stressors. There is strong statistical relationship between life stressor category and clinically significant depressive symptom (P value= 0.000).
    Conclusion: clinically significant depressive symptoms are common among medical students of Baghdad University. Stressors were high and are positively associated with the presence of depressive symptoms.
    Keywords: depressive symptoms, stressors, medical students

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  • Article title : Depression among Females in AL-Sader city, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Description :

    Hadeel M. Jasim *      FABHS

    Besma M. Ali*               FICMS,
    Eman A. Al-Kaseer** FIBMS,
    Jawad AL-Diwan**     DCN, FIBMS, FFPH

    Background: Literature documented that depression is a sequlae of exposure to wars and widespread violence. In Iraq, high figures of depression were published.
    Objectives: To report on prevalence of depression among women in high crowded area, Al-Sader city, Baghdad.
    Method: A total of 440 females were included in this study. There were selected randomly from relatives of patients accompanied them in attending to primary health care centers. Beck –Depression Inventory (BDI)-II was used to assess depression. Demographic data were requested, too.
    Result: The prevalence of depression was 68.4%. Old age women, divorced and widows were determinants of depression. Education and crowding index (socioeconomic status) were not obvious determinants of depression.
    Conclusion: High prevalence of depression was observed.
    Keywords: depression, Al-Sader city, wars, violence, Iraq

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  • Article title : Measuring of Plasma Melatonin Level in Patients with Preeclampsia
    Description :

    Maad M. Shalal* FICOG
    Ishraq M. Kadhim* CABGO
    Nada S. Abbas** FIBGO
    Ghaidaa Abdulsattar** MBChB

    Background: disturbed physiological rhythm of blood pressure in preeclampsia is a common finding. The role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of preeclampsia is well accepted. Melatonin is a powerful free radical scavenger so it's rapidly consumed by enhanced reactive oxygen species in preeclampsia causing non-dipping in blood pressure.
    Objective: To evaluate the change in plasma melatonin levels in patients with preeclampsia and its relationship with blood pressure.
    Patients and methods: In this prospective case control study a total of 40 primigravidae pregnant women were recruited during the period of 11 months between August 2015 and August 2016 in Baghdad teaching hospital, medical city, Iraq, divided into two groups:
    First groups: (cases group) were 20 primigravidae pregnant women with PE.
    Second group: (control group) were 20 normal healthy primigravidae.
    Blood Pressure measurement, melatonin blood samples were taken, plasma melatonin levels measurement was done by ELISA immunoassay. Urine was collected over 24 hours for protein in urine measurement.
    Results : Plasma Melatonin level in control , day and night was (22.72 ± 2.6 pg/mL ) , (75.26 ± 2.99 pg/mL ) compared to Plasma Melatonin level in dipper PE day and night (20.5±2.4 pg/mL ) , (75.26 ± 1.8 pg/mL) which was statistically not significant( P value 0.055 ) , (P value 1.0) respectively .
    Plasma Melatonin level for non-dipper ( 22.45 ± 2.48 pg/mL) were similar to dipper (20.5±2.4 pg/mL) which is not significant (P value 0.1) , while Night time Plasma Melatonin of non-dipper (36.76 ± 1.27 ) were reduced when compared to control (75.26 ± 2.99 pg/mL) and to dipper group (75.26 ± 1.8 pg/mL ) which was highly significant (p <0.0001 , p <0.0001) respectively .
    Conclusion: Night time Plasma Melatonin level reduced in Primigravid Women with preeclampsia that did not show nocturnal dipping in blood pressure.
    Keywords: Melatonin hormone, melatonin during pregnancy, melatonin levels in preeclampsia, preeclampsia.

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  • Article title : Thrombocytosis and CA125 as Predictor of Malignancy in Gynaecological Pelvic Mass
    Description :

    Najmah M. Miran * FICOG, CABGO, DOG

    Background: Pelvic masses are common in women & can present at any age of woman life, it could be benign or malignant mass and may originate from gynecological organs like cervix, uterus, uterine adnexia, or from other pelvic organs like intestine, bladder, ureters, skeletal muscle, and bone.
    Objective: We attempted to determine the increasing of platelet counts(> 450.000 /micro liter) and CA125serum level (> 35 U/mL) as useful tools for predicting and confirming malignancy in gynecological pelvic mass.
    Patients and methods: A prospective unmatched hospital based case-control study carried out at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, about 126 women were enrolled in our study, divided into two groups 60 women were control group (free of gynecological pelvic mass). The other group includes 66 women above 15 years old with gynecological pelvic mass were all candidate for laparotomy.
    Results: Serum CA125 and blood platelets count were tested for validity when used as a test to predict a diagnosis of malignancy in gynecological pelvic mass differentiating it from benign gynecological pelvic mass. Both tests showed a very high validity in diagnosis, with serum CA125 showing a marginally higher validity.
    All studied subjects with a blood platelets count ≥ 385.000 and CA 125≥ 41.7were malignant, while everybody below this cut-off value was benign or healthy.
    Conclusion: Both blood platelet count (≥385 X 103microlitter) &serum level of CA125 (≥41.7 U/mL) are useful predictor tools to confirm malignancy in gynecological pelvic mass.
    Keywords: - thrombocytosis, Ca 125, malignancy, pelvic mass.

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  • Article title : Assessment of Preventive Foot Care Practices among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type II
    Description :

    Aqeel A. Noaman* BSc, MSc

    Background: Diabetic foot problems are one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus which causing a worldwide high cost morbidity which could be due to poor self-practices.
    Objectives: To assess the preventive food care practices among diabetic patients and to find out any significant association of these practices with selected socio-demographical and diabetic related characteristics.
    Patients and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Baquba city from the period of 20th Septembers, 2016 up to 20th March, 2017, by selecting a sample of (120) patients by using a structured questionnaire, the questionnaire composed of three parts, the first part contains information related to patients’ demographic characteristics, the second part contains some information related to diabetic characteristics and the third part of the questionnaire consists of different questions about preventive foot care practices which consist of 14 positive items. Each one of these items must be answered either with (Always, Never or Sometimes). A three levels Likert scale was used to measure the variables. Finally, the data analyzed using SPSS (Ver.18) and the Chi-square was used to find out any association between studied data and preventive foot care practices. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant in the present study.
    Results: Out of 120 diabetic patients, (40%) of them were over 60 years, (52.5%) were male patients, about one third (32.5%) were illiterate, most of them (40.8%) had moderate monthly income, majority of them (66.7%) were living in urban areas. Also the current study showed that the patient responses to preventive foot care practices were satisfactory at all studied items, except at the these items “drying my feet after washing, regular use of lotion or oil to moisturizing foot, taking care when clipping my toenail and visiting doctor after foot injury , their responses assessment were unsatisfactory. It was found that (62.5%) of the studied patients had an acceptable and good foot care practices.
    Conclusions: It concluded from this study that most of the diabetic patients had an acceptable and good foot care practices, and didn’t indicates a significant association between the patients’ age, gender, residency, duration of disease and previous history of foot ulcer with overall assessment of preventive foot care practices, and there was only significant association with overall assessment of the studied preventive diabetic foot care practices with patients’ educational level and monthly income.
    Keywords: Diabetic patients, preventive practices, diabetic foot, demographic characteristics, foot ulcer.

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  • Article title : Assessment of Arsenic poisoning among printing textile workers in Baghdad.
    Description :

    Ali A. Ali sahib* DCM, FICMS

    Background: Workers of textile industry are mainly exposed to a variety of toxic dyes, bleaching agents, salts, acids, alkalis and heavy metals like arsenic through evaporation and inhale by workers or direct skin contact during the textile mordant process and possibly health effect through the printing process
    Objectives : to assess the health effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to Arsenic trioxide on textile printing workers and to evaluate and compare the clinical utility of blood and urine arsenic for predicting arsenic poisoning.
    Methods: In this historic cohort study, measurement of serum and urine levels of arsenic of 65exposed workers and 63non exposed workers was carried out during march 2014 through march 2015 All of the studies cases were worked in a cotton textile factories and considered as target population for detection of any possible industrial chronic arsenic exposure associated sign and symptoms . The non-exposed workers were randomly selected from office personnel of the same factories. Clinical examination, signs and symptoms and a questionnaire method used for analysis in both groups.
    Results: both groups have a similar age structure. Statistical difference was present between the serum arsenic and arsenic in urine mean values for both the exposed and non-exposed groups. The prevalence ratio for the exposure was higher than one for arsenic in urine. The best cut-off values of arsenic in urine to diagnosis arsenic poisoning based on Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis( ROC) was >90 μg/L and the areas under the curve equal to 0.98 was determined for the prediction early chronic arsenic poisoning.
    Conclusion: measurement of arsenic in urine in early stage was useful to detect mild to moderate health effects based on Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) among textile printing workers exposed to arsenic.
    Keywords: arsenic, textile printing workers, flameless chromatography, ROC curve.

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  • Article title : Immunohistochemical expression of HepPar 1 in colorectal cancer
    Description :

    Islam A. Jasim* MBChB
    Ameer Dh. Hameedi* FICMS (Path)

    Background: Colorectal carcinoma is common in Northwest Europe, North America, and other Anglo-Saxon areas, while it decreases in number in Africa, Asia, and some parts of South America, There are many immunohistochemical markers react to colonic tissue, the large majority of colorectal carcinomas are positive for mucin stains. Colorectal adenocarcinomas are invariably positive for cytokeratin (CK), Reactivity for CEA is also the rule; as a matter of fact, failure to detect CEA in an adenocarcinoma of makes a colo-rectal site of origin seems to be unlikely, and many other markers that could claimed in colorectal tumors, a one marker that may has a role in staining colorectal tumors is HepPar-1 which is a monoclonal antibody that reacts to an as yet unidentified cytoplasmic marker of normal and neoplastic hepatocytes, which could be expressed in neoplastic or non-neoplastic colorectal tissue.
    Objectives: to see the expression of HepPar-1 (cytoplasmic marker of normal and neoplastic hepatocytes) in colorectal cancer.
    Patients and methods: Fifty-eight cases (49 with colorectal carcinoma, 9 cases on non-malignant colorectal tissues) male and females depending on records, the study is conducted in GIT specialized hospital in medical city / department of histopathology – Baghdad city during period from 1/10/2016 to 1/4/2017.
    Results: cases were studied, the positivity in our study of the cases was (8.2%), and none of the control "non-neoplastic" cases express this marker. No significant statistical correlation was found between HepPar-1 expression and the tumor grade, site, age or sex, (P values >0.05).
    Conclusion: HepPar-1 can be expressed in tumors including 8.2% of colorectal carcinoma in this study; HepPar-1 is not expressed in normal colorectal tissue.
    Keywords: HepPar-1, colonic cancer, rectal cancer, liver secondary tumors

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  • Article title : Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from ear swab in Iraqi children as a causative agent of Otitis externa
    Description :

    Eman A. Al-Hasnawi* BSc, MSc

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, spherical, grape like clusters arrangment bacterium, non-spore forming. Is a genus that causes many hard diseases such as food poisoning, gastroenteritis with severe symptoms. S. aureus is commonly found in the wide environment (soil, air and water) and is importantly found in the nose and skin in the humans. And can causes ear infection by entering the ear. The diagnosis of Otitis externa is usually made clinically and bacterial tests.
    Objective: To detection and isolation of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus from pus specimens of ear swab, among Iraqi children with Otitis externa.
    Patients and methods: Eighty ear swab specimens from suspected cases of Otitis externa among children, inoculated to brain heart broth, then to non-selective media (blood agar) and when growth appeared, cultured on selective media (Mannitol salt agar) plates in the laboratory. The plates were incubated at 37ᵒC aerobically for 24 hours, identified the isolate by Gram stain, catalase and coagulase of human plasma.
    Results: In this study, from 80 samples (43) males; (37) female, with (31) cases had medical history controlled by 20 healthy individuals: the bacterial growth and identification on blood agar resulted in presence of nonspecific bacteria in (65) samples, were (36) males and (29) females, while specific bacteria Staphylococcus aureus on selected media (Manitol salt agar), catalase positive and Co-agulase positive, were in (28) samples of (16) males and (12) females most of them in age (1-3) years, were (11) samples, in males more than females.
    Conclusion: The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was the most important diagnosis of predominant causative agents of Otitis externa among Iraqi children and showed such an exhibition about the epidemic type of bacteria in our region.
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Otitis externa , ear swab, Iraqi children

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  • Article title : Evaluate the correlation of Inflammatory Cytokines with Chlamydia pneumonia in Coronary Atherosclerotic Patients
    Description :

    Ruqaya M. AL-Barzinji* BSc, MSc, PhD
    Lajan Q. Rahman * BSc, MSc

    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, caused by high concentrations of plasma cholesterol, in particular those with high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which considered as one of the principal risk factors for atherosclerosis.
    Objective: The study focused on detecting risk factors and biomarkers for coronary atherosclerotic in order to develop interventions preventing their progressions.
    Patients and Methods: The present case control study was carried out between December 2012 and May 2013, in Hawler cardiac center, 74 coronary atherosclerotic patients were enrolled in our study (44 males and 30 females), their age ranged between 30 years to 75 years old, 25 (33.8%) were type 2 diabetes, 51 (68.9%) were hypertensive and 29(39.2%) were obese. Apparently 40 healthy individuals were also joined in this study. The sera were subjected to assessment of some inflammatory biomarkers including high sensitive C- reactive proten (CRP), Interleukin-6(IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, leptin, leptin receptor and Chlamydia pneumonia (C.pneumonia).
    Results: Serum concentrations of high sensitive CRP, TNF-α, C.pneumonia and IL-10 in obese coronary atherosclerotic patients (CAPS) were significantly higher than non-obese patients (P≤0.01), indeed IL-6, leptin and leptin receptor also significantly increased in obese patients(P≤0.05). Same results with serum CRP, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in diabetic patients than non-diabetic patients (P≤0.05). However, TNF-α in diabetic patients was significantly higher than non-diabetic patients (P≤0.01). Serum concentration of high sensitivity CRP in hypertensive patients was statistically significant than non-hypertensive patients (P≤0.05).
    Conclusion: Our study revealed that various factors have been introduced in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis such as: age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, defect in lipid metabolism and change in the concentration of various lipoproteins of cholesterol.
    Keywords: Coronary atherosclerotic, cytokines, Chlamydia pneumonia

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  • Article title : Immunostimulatory, Antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of purified Donkey colostrums lactoferrin on multidrug resistance Serratia liquefaciens producing Intl gene
    Description :

    Likaa, H. Mahdi * BSc, MSc, PhD (Pathogenic bacteria) Neihaya, H. Zaki * BSc, MSc, PhD (bacterial physiology) Istabreq, M. A. Salman* BSc, MSc (microbiology) Luma, A. H. Zwain** BSc, MSc, PhD (microbiology)

    Background: Modern methods of biofilm prevention depended on the utilize of normal foodstuffs can solve antibacterial and antibiofilm problems.
    Objective: To purify donkey lactoferrin, and evaluate antibiotic resisted Serratia liquefaciens which producing Intl gene and investigate the inhibitory action of lactoferrin on biofilm and stimulate immune response.
    Methods: lactoferrin extracted from donkey milk, and purified by ammonium sulfate and Sephadex chromatography. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of lactoferrin on Serratia liquefaciens were assayed, and effect of lactoferrin on the innate immune response of mice was determined.
    Results: Lactoferrin contains 9.88% carbohydrates, 128 ppm iron, and molecular weight was 85kDa. It reduced S.liquifaciens in lung tissues of mice, and TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine levels decreasing by oral uptake of donkey milk.
    Conclusion: All isolates resistance to Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and Intl gene was 160 bp. Lactoferrin concentration was about 2.77mg/ml. lactoferrin increase innate immune response from S. liquefaciens infection. These outcomes can be evidence for the way to original comprehensions regarding the use of Donkey colostrums lactoferrin as an oral adjuvant for a wide range of diseases.
    Keywords: S.liquefaciens; Donkey milk, Lactoferrin; Purification; Intl gene; antibiofilm; immunostimulator.

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  • Article title : Correlations between Serum Interleukins-2,-4 Levels and Some Biochemical Parameters in Iraqi Patients with Osteoporosis
    Description :

    Hind Sh. Ahmed* BSc, MSc, PhD

    Background: Osteoporosis is a frequent disease that is manifested by reduced in mineral density and raised in fracture risk. Recent studies have indicated that osteoporosis is caused by composite connections among local and systemic regulators of bone cell function.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and some biochemical markers in Iraqi patients with osteoporosis.
    Patients and Methods: Forty five osteoporotic patients were incorporated in this study (30 women and 15 men). Serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium, magnesium, interleukin-2, and interleukin-4 were measured in osteoporotic patients and compared them with the control group.
    Results: There was a significant increase in serum fasting glucose, lipid profile except high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoporotic patients as compared to the control, (P=0.001). Also, there was a significant increase in interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in osteoporotic patients as compared to the control, (P= 0.01). While there was a decrease in serum calcium and magnesium levels in osteoporotic patients as compared to the control. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase activity with interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 levels in osteoporotic patients, (P= 0.01).
    Conclusion: Elevated levels of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 along with some biochemical markers like; serum alkaline phosphatase in osteoporotic patients might include significant functions in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
    Keywords: Osteoporosis, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-4.

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