Home | Journal Issues | Vol.57. Issue , No. : 4. , 2015

Vol.57. Issue , No. : 4. , 2015

Published: 1/1/2016– Start page -264  , End Page -350




  • Article title : Cardiac Myxoma Single Center Experience
    Description :


    Adil Kh. Dawood*                  MBChB, FIBMS



    Background: cardiac myxoma is the most frequent primary cardiac tumour comprising 30 to 50%, they are benign tumours. They are most often reported in women in the third to sixth decade of life.

    Objectives: is to evaluate the incidence of surgery of cardiac myxomas and their presentation and outcome in IbnAl-NafeesTeaching hospital over 10 years.

    Patient and Methods: This is a retrospective study that was conducted in Ibn Al-Nafees Hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 on patients with cardiac myxoma. Twenty-five patients diagnosed pre-operatively as having cardiac myxoma, they were admitted to the hospital and underwent clinical evaluation, investigation, and surgical treatment.

    Result: Cardiac myxomas constituted 1% of the total cardiac operations at our institute, the twenty-five patients who were studied were operated upon, the mean age of patients was 49 years and male-female ratio was 1:3.Occurrence of myxoma was more common in the left atrium 88% followed by right atrium 8% while only 1 patient had myxoma in right ventricle. One recurrence was noticed after surgery, only one early death observed in this study.

    Conclusion: Early surgical intervention with complete resection of the tumour is essential for the cure of the disease and to prevent tumour recurrence with subsequent reoperation that expose the patient to more serious complications, Echocardiography is the ideal diagnostic tool and it is needed in the long term follow-up of the patients.

    Keywords: Myxoma, cardiac tumours, echocardiography.

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  • Article title : Standerd cervical mediastinoscopy in the diagnosis of mediastinal mass in Ghazi Al-Hariri Hospital
    Description :

    Sabah  N.  Jaber*                   MBCHB, FICMS, FACS

    Abdulameer M. Hussein**    MBCHB, FICMS, FACS

    Bashar B Aday*                      MBCHB, FICMS



    Background: Mediastinoscopy is an integral part in the diagnosis of mediastinal mass. The most common indications for mediastinoscopy is for tissue sampling and determining the extent of lung cancer.

    Objectives: To validate our experience with standard cervical mediastinoscopy and to evaluate the usefulness of cervical mediastinoscopy in the assessing the mediastinal diseases when imaging modalities are none diagnostic.

    Material and Methods:  A retrospective study of 16 patients between January 2012 and July 2014. Mediastinoscopy was indicated for diagnostic staging of nodal disease related to lung cancer in 8 patients (group I) and for isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 8 patients (group II)

    Results: There were 11 males and 5 females, with a mean age of 47 years. The mean operative time was 30 minutes and the mean hospital stay was 8 hours. In lung cancer (group I) there was positive results in 3 patients and negative results in 5 patients. In patients with isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy (group II), TB was the commonest diagnosis. There was no surgical related morbidity or mortality in our study. The sensitivity and specificity of standard cervical mediastinoscopy in this study was 100%

    Conclusion: Standard cervical mediastinoscopy is safe in the hands of well trained persons and needs a good knowledge of the anatomy of the region, cost effective, highly specific and still the first investigation of choice in the diagnosis of mediastinal nodal involvement.

    Key words:  Mediastinoscopy, cervical, tissue biopsy.

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  • Article title : Transanal Endorectal Pull-Through Procedure for patients with Hirschsprung`s Disease: A prospective study
    Description :

    Bilal H. Abdul-Ghafoor*                      FICMS Ped.Surg.

    Ali F. Abdullah*                                   FICMS Ped.Surg.

    Makke A. F.Al-Amery**                      FICMS Ped.



    Back ground: Hirschsprung`s disease is a common problem among pediatric population, many procedures had been implemented in the treatment with different results. In the last decades one stage transanal endorectal pullthrough (TEPT) had come into the stage as a minimal invasive choice for such condition with good results.

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TEPT procedure among pediatrics in a tertiary pediatric surgery center in Iraq.

    Patients and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 11 patients with Hirschsprung’s disease, attending Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics for the period from March 2007 till August 2014. Their ages were ranging from 1 month - 12 years. All cases had diverting colostomy and leveling biopsy. The aganglionic segment was confined to the rectum and rectosigmoid junction. TEPT was done to all cases with closure of colostomy 6-8 weeks after pullthrough. The patients were followed up for a period of 6 months-4 years.

    Results: The study was conducted on 11 patients with a mean age of (33.7 ± 43.4 months); the male to female ratio was 9:2. Regarding the level of aganglionosis, it was confined to the rectum in 4 cases, while it reached the rectosigmoid junction in 7 cases. The mean operating time was (115.4 ± 23.5 minutes), and the mean volume of blood loss was (37.3 ± 17.6 ml). The average length of resected aganglionic segment was (13.9 cm). There is no conversion to laparotomy in any case. Complications developed in two cases one with perianal excoriation and the other develop postoperative enterocolitis.

    Conclusion: Transanal Endorectal Pull-Through operation for Hirschsprung's disease is feasible and safe, and it can be performed successfully in all ages of children with good results avoiding transabdominal exploration.

    Key words : Hirschsprung's disease, transanal endorectal pullthrough, aganglionosis.

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  • Article title : Magnetic Resonance Imaging in sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses
    Description :

    Salam M. Joori*,                          DMRD, FJMC

    Atheer A. Fadhil**                       DMRD, FIBMS

    Wassen   M. Abdullateef,*            MBChB

    Maysoon M. Jabir***                  CABGO



    Background: Although ultrasonography (US) continues to be the primary imaging modality used to identify and characterize adnexal masses, but certain conditions that hinder accurate ultrasound examination, such as obesity, may be indications for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, for the assessment of complex and indeterminate ovarian masses. 

    Objective: to assess the ability of MRI to characterize sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses.

    Patients and methods: A prospective study of 89 cases with sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass underwent pelvic MRI conducted in X-ray institute in medical city in Baghdad during period from October 2011 to January 2013 & the results compared to the final diagnosis which was determined by histopathological & surgical findings

    Results: Most sonographyically indeterminate adnexal masses result from common benign condition. Benign conditions account for 87.6%, while malignant condition account for 12.4%. Endometriosis was the commonest cause constitute (22.4 %), followed by mature cystic teratoma , and pedunculated fibroid (18%) and (15.7%) respectively. Excellent agreement was noted between MRI and final diagnosis for determining the origin and tissue characteristics which are 98% and 91% respectively.

    Conclusion: Sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses of uncertain origin and solid or complex content will benefit from further evaluation with MRI, which is highly accurate for identifying the origin of the mass and characterizing its tissue contents playing an important role in planning the way of management.

    Key words: adnexal masses, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging

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  • Article title : Role of Ultrasound and computed tomography in assessment of abdominal lymphadenopathy and splenomegally in lymphomas
    Description :

    Khaleel I. Mohson*                   MBChB, DMRD, CABMS-RAD

    Mohammed Al-Hilli**              MBChB, DMRD, FICMS. (RAD)



    Background: lymph nodes involvement is the most common presentation of abdominal lymphoma; their diagnosis is based on variety of imaging modalities, histopathology of different areas of involvement and stage of the disease.

    Objective: to compare the value of abdominal ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scan in already diagnosed cases of lymphoma and evaluation of lymph nodes and splenic involvement in patients with proved lymphoma.

    Patients and methods:  thirty patients with lymphoma were gathered from hematological unit in Baghdad teaching hospital retrospectively depending on their histopathology that revealed either Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and they were examined by ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen, then were categorized according to the lymph nodes regions involvement.

    Results: the results showed that both ultrasound and CT are nearly equal in detecting upper abdominal adenopathy and splenic involvement, while CT is better than ultrasound in assessment of lower abdominal, mesenteric and para-iliac lymph nodes groups.

    Conclusion: our results are comparable to the earlier series and show improved detection of lymph nodes by new modality CT.

    Key words: ultrasound, computed tomography, lymphadenopathy, lymphoma.

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  • Article title : The role of computed tomography in characterization, diagnosis and staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a sample of Iraqi patients
    Description :

    Abdullateef A.  Mustafa*                    MBChB, CABMS-RAD.

    Waleed M. Hussain**                         M.S, FIBMS (Th.C.V.S), MRCS, FRCS(Glasgow)

    Zainab I. Murad***                            MBChB



    Background: malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is uncommon neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells of the pleura. The most important etiologic agent is typically related to exposure to minerals fibers such as asbestos and erionite. Computed tomography (CT) plays essential role in characterization, diagnosis and staging of MPM.

    Objectives: to determine the value of CT scan in characterization of MPM and its impact on diagnosis, and staging of the disease with histopathological correlation.

    Patients and methods: the CT scan of 27 patients who had diagnosed of MPM were retrospectively evaluated, additionally CT findings of histopathological subtypes were compared and determine staging of the disease according to their documented CT findings. The study was performed at Medical City Teaching Hospitals and Hospital of Radiation & Nuclear Medicine in Baghdad from period of 2008 to 2014. 

    Results: Fifteen patients were male and twelve patients were female with percentage of (55.5%, 44.4%) respectively with age range of 36-66 years, 37% of patients were coming from area closed to asbestos manufacture in Baghdad, but only 14.8% of them had history of exposure to asbestos. histological subtypes analysis revealed that epitheliod types is the most frequent type occurred in 63% of patients, sarcomatoid type in 22.2% of patients and mixed (biphasic) type in 14.8% of patients. The statistical analysis of CT findings of different histological subtypes reveal that the  interlobar fissure involved in 100% of patients, paranchymal lung involvement in 67%, chest wall involvement in 67%, pericardial involvement in 67%, mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 67%  which are more significant with p-value <0.05 in sarcomatoid subtypes  than alternate histological subtypes. Regarding the staging of MPM, the study show stage I in 11.1% of cases, stage II in 37.1, stage III in 25.9%, and stage IV in 25.9%.

    Conclusion: This study show that contrast-enhanced CT of the chest and upper abdomen plays a fundamental role in characterization and categorization of key findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma and convert it into the updated staging system to guide appropriate evaluation and management.

    Key Words: Mesothelioma, Computed tomography, asbestos exposure, pleural effusion.

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  • Article title : Alcohol and drug abuse in post-conflict Iraq
    Description :

    Nesif J. Al-Hemiary*          MBChB, FIBMS

    Mushtaq T. Hashim*          MBChB, CABPsych;

    Jawad K. Al-Diwan**          MBChB, MSc, DCN, FIBMS;

    Emad Abdul Razzaq***      MBChB, FIBMS



    Background: The 2006-2007 Iraqi Mental Health survey (IMHS) reported surprisingly low prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in the Iraqi population. Since then anecdotal and clinical reports have suggested that abuse of alcohol and drugs in Iraq has increased. To investigate this possibility, we conducted a survey of drug and drug abuse at youth centers in Baghdad.  

                     Objective: To investigate this possibility, we conducted a survey of drug and drug abuse at youth centers   

                     in Baghdad. 

    Patients and methods: A total of 2678 persons were included in this survey with male to female ratio of 3.8:1. They were randomly selected from youth centers located in different sectors in Baghdad (Sader city, Al-Rusafa side and Al-Karkh side). Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate diagnosis. The interviewers were youth center staff whowere trained by psychiatrists. Demographic data, age of onset and crowding index. Data collection was carried out on Dec. 2009.

    Results: A total of 16.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse and 7.02% met criteria for drug abuse. In those below 18 years of age, 2.1% reported alcohol abuse and 1.1% reported drug abuse. The peak age for alcohol and drug abuse was at 24-35 years. No female reported alcohol and substance abuse. The age of onset of alcohol was 21.7 ± 3.6 years and for drug abuse was 22 ± 5.8 years. Alcohol abuse was significantly associated with high crowding index, but drug abuse was not associated with crowding index. Low educational level was associated significantly with both alcohol and drug abuse.

    Conclusion: High rates of alcohol and drug abuse were recorded. A tendency in early age of onset in alcohol and drugs was observed. High household density and low educational level are important factors in alcohol and drug abuse.

    Keywords: Iraq, conflict, alcohol and drug abuse, war

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  • Article title : The use of serum Amylase as a predictive factor for mortality in Perforated Duodenal Ulcer
    Description :

    Tawfiq J. Al-Marzooq *                       FICMS

    Ragad E. Naji **                                  PhD

    Ali K..Al-Majidi*                                   FACB, FICMS

    Yaser Abbas**                                        PhD



    Background: High serum amylase is frequently found in perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU) ,the rise in serum amylase  occurs in cases of perforated peptic ulcer partly as a result of increase leakage of pancreatic enzymes rich fluid from the perforation site with subsequent  absorption by peritoneal lymphatics & partly due to damage of pancreases by digestive enzymes that spilled through the perforation.

    Objectives: To determine the significance of abnormally high level of serum amylase in patients undergone operation for PDU, to study the factors that tend to bring about elevated serum amylase level in these patients.

    Patients and Methods: A prospective study of 250  patients with perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU) at al kindy teaching hospital, Baghdad, Iraq from June 2008- august 2010. patients were examined clinically and investigated by blood test, chest x- ray, plain X- ray of the abdomen. &ultrasonography (U/S). Resuscitation by intravenous fluid, antibiotic were done. Explorative laparotomy performed for all patients, repair of perforation done by simple omental patch. Data regarding site, size of perforation, amount of spilled fluid  and operative finding were recorded.

    Results: Two hundred fifty patients included in this study with proven PDU, 222 (88.8 %) were male and 28 (11.2 %) were female, male to female ratio is  8 :1. The mean age was 38 years, ranging from 22-70 years. The over all mortality was 14.4%. In 210 patients( 84%), the serum amylase was within normal range, the mortality in this group was 10 %.  The other 21 patients (16%) had level of 200 or above, the mortality in this group was 37.5 %. Mortality was 5 % in cases with mild intra peritoneal fluid spillage, 9% in moderate, 25% in large amount & 39 in massive intra peritoneal spillage. The size of perforation has prognostic significance, for the larger the perforation, the higher the mortality.

    Conclusions: Limiting surgical delay in patients with PDU seems to be of paramount importance in reducing the mortality in these patients. In patients with PPD, the high serum amylase the high mortalityrate

    Keywords:  PDU, serum amylase, mortality rate, time delay


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  • Article title : Serum IL-17 and postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Description :

    Tharwa H. AL-Tai*                   BSc, MSc (Microbiology)



    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone condition that makes bones thininer and more fragile because of reduced bone density and it puts people at risk of fractures, especially of the hip, spinal vertebrae and wrist.

    Objective: This study will highlighted the role of IL-17 in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Patients and methods: This study applied on 84 includes subjects (42 postmenopausal osteoporosis patient and 42 of healthy control group), conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 to measure the IL-17 serum level by using ELISA kit.

    Results: In osteoporotic postmenopausal women the mean of serum IL-17  was (0.49pg/ml) and it is significantly higher than that of healthy group (0.09pg/ml).

    Conclusion: Serum IL-17 was significantly elevated in osteoporotic postmenopausal women when compared to healthy postmenopausal women.

    Keywords: Postmenopasual, Osteoporosis, IL-17.

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  • Article title : Immunocytochemical Detection of Glutathione S-Transferase in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
    Description :

    Haider F. Ghazi *                                 PhD

    Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi *                          PhD

    Huda Adnan**                                     FICMS

    Manal  A. Habib***                             PhD




    Background: Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL)of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)patients have a property of phenotypic and functional activation. Glutathione S- transferase pi (GSTπ) has been implicated in playing an important role in the initiation and progression of cellular activation.

    Objectives: To determine the percentage of cellular expression of GSTπ in the lymphocytes of RA patients in comparison with controls and to explore the relation between its cellular expression and disease activity pattern.

    Patients and Methods: This prospective study included46 RA patients and 17 healthy controls. Blood samples were taken and from all subjects PBL were isolated and then smeared on slides. The cellular reactivity for GSTπ was determined by immunocytochemistry technique.

    Results: This study found lower expression of GSTπ in the RA patients with a statistical significant difference with control group, while no statistical difference was found in RA with high and minimum disease activity groups. No correlation was observed between GSTπ with Disease Activity Score (DAS).

    Conclusion: Although the decrease in the expression of GSTπ in PBLs was pronounced in RA patients, however it doesn’t correlate with disease activity state.

    Key word: Peripheral blood lymphocytes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Glutathione S-transferase, immunocytochemistry.

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  • Article title : Relationship of Pruritus with Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients (A Single Center Study).
    Description :

    Ban Ghassan*                                       BSc, MSc

    Jaffar N. Jaffar Alalsaidissa**            MBChB, MSc, PhD

    Ali J. Hashim Al- Saedi***                  MBChB, PhD

    Sabah Al- Alawchi****                        BSc, PhD



    Background: Pruritus often constitutes a major problem for patients with end stage renal disease. The pathophysiological mechanism of chronic kidney disease -associated pruritus is poorly defined.

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of uremic pruritus in dialysis patients and their correlation with the laboratory and clinical parameters in some Iraqi patients with chronic renal disease.

    Patients & methods: This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 103 patients on haemodialysis. Blood urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were determined. Complete blood count was also performed.

    Results: Of the 103 patients included in the study the, 79 patients (76.7%) had pruritus of whom, 27 (34.1%) had mild pruritus, 30 (38%) had moderate and 22 (27.9%) had severe pruritus. No significant association (p ˃ 0.05) was found between pruritus and each of age and haemodialysis duration. There was no significant difference (p ˃ 0.05) in the urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells, neutrophils, eoisinophils, basophils mean values among patients who had no pruritus, mild, moderate and severe pruritus. A significant positive correlation (p ˂ 0.05) was found between severity of pruritus in pruritic patients and each of age, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

    Conclusion: Our study showed that age, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels had a significant positive correlation with the severity of pruritus in pruritic patients.

    Keywords: pruritus, haemodialysis, biochemical and haematological parameters.

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  • Article title : The Impact of Body Mass Index and Some Trace Elements in Iraqi Women with Breast Cancer
    Description :

    Rana K. Al-Saady*      BSc,  PhD


    Background: Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease globally. Trace elements such as copper and zinc have a role in many biochemical reactions as micro source, their metabolism is profoundly altered in neoplastic diseases especially breast cancer which is ranked as the first of female cancers

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to study the impact of body mass index and some trace elements in Iraqi women with breast cancer.

    Patients and methods: The group of the study consisted of 25 breast cancer patients; their age range was (25–65) years recruited from the Al-Kadhimia Teaching Hospital and 25 apparently healthy women age matched, over a period of 6 months from January 2015 until June 2015. After the diagnosis was made using a histopathological examination for the malignant tumor, blood was obtained from all patients and control, centrifuged and serum samples without blood hemolysis were separated and stored at – 20 until assayed.

    Results: There was a significant increase in body mass index in breast cancer women as compared to control group. Copper and zinc levels were significantly different between the patients and controls group with higher level of copper, zinc. Also copper/zinc ratio in patients was higher than in the control group.

    Conclusions: The excess copper and zinc in breast cancer women in comparison to healthy control highlights the role of these trace elements in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer. It is recommended to use trace elements and the copper/zinc ratio as biomarkers for breast cancer disease and its progression.

    Keywords: Breast cancer, traces elements, and body mass index.

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  • Article title : Serum Lipid Profile in Iraqi patients with Breast Cancer
    Description :

    Faisal Gh. Al-Rubaye*              MBChB, PhD

    Taha Shawi Morad**                PhD

    Mohammed  I. Hamzah*           PhD

    Shatha M. Hasan**                   MSc



    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a type of cancer originating from breast tissue, Lipid profile seems to influence the development of female breast cancer, especially in the presence of an increased body mass index so

    Objective: to explore the status of lipid profile in women with breast cancer.

    Subjects and methods: the present study is a cross-sectional study (2010/2011) done at     Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. Includes measurement of  LP in sera of  postmenapausal newly diagnosed women with BC in comparison with healthy control women. This measurement was done using colorimetric method. In The results of this study include a total of 100 patients with BC were involved in this study, they were classified as newly diagnosed postmenopausal women with BC G1: (n=100); together with 100 healthy Postmenopausal women as a control group G2: (n=100).

    Results: Serum LP was significantly altered in newly diagnosed BC groups whom receive no therapy (G1) [P < 0.001] when compared with control group (G2): this alteration was in term of significant increment in TC, TG, LDL and VLDL accompanied by elevation of HDL which was significant [P < 0.05]

    Conclusion: level of LP was significantly elevated in BC group suggesting atherosclerosis.

    Key words:  lipid profile, breast cancer.

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  • Article title : Hybrid nanoliposome as a targeted growth inhibitor for Cervical Carcinoma Cell line
    Description :

    Noor A. Awad*                              MBCHB, MSc   

    Nahi Y. Yassen                          ** PhD

    Amer  T. Tawfeeq                     ** PhD

    Kismat M. Turki*                          PhD



    Background: targeted cancer nanotherapy represents a golden goal for nanobiotechnology to overcome the severe side effects of conventional chemotherapy.  Hybrid nanoliposomes (HLs) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Polyoxyethylene (23) dodecyl ether (C12 (EO)23 )  can integrate selectively into the cancer cell membrane inducing cancer cell death.

    Objectives: to assess the capacity of locally (in hose) synthesized hybrid nanoliposome to inhibit the growth of cervix cancer cells (HeLa) and induce apoptosis.

    Patients and Methods: hybrid nanoliposomes(nHLs) synthesized by sonication method from a  mixture of 90% mol DMPC and 10% mol C12(EO)23 in tissue culture media RPMI-1640 for 6 hours at 300W and 40ºC then filtration with 0.2µm filter. Shape and size characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Viability of HeLa cell and normal lymphocytes challenged with HLs were determined using MTT assay. Induction of apoptosis in the challenged cells was examined by staining with fluorescence dye mix cridine orange/propidium iodide.

    Results: synthesized nHLs were in nanozise range and selectively inhibited HeLa cells proliferation with IC50 of 0.2mM DMPC with no effect against normal lymphocytes.  Apoptosis was evident in 88.24% of  HeLa cells population treated with HLs.

    Conclusion: synthesized nHLs may considered as promising nanotherapy, this study recommends further inspections for the mechanism of action of nHLs and their capabilities to inhibit other types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo.

    Key words: hybrid nanoliposomes, liposomes, HeLa cells, apoptosis, nanotbioechnology

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  • Article title : Evaluation of Serum Apelin in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients
    Description :

    Bashar J. Hussein*                         BSc. Chemistry

    Zina H. Abdul-Qahar *                 MBChB, FICMS Chemical Pathology

    Nazar N. Abbas**                          MBChB, FIBMS (Med), FIBMS (Cardio)



    Background: Acute coronary syndrome refers to any group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia including unstable angina (UA), Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) & ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    Apelin is a novel endogenous peptide with inotropic and vasodilatory properties, it was recently reported that serum measurements of apelin were similar to its immunohistochemical data in vessels and heart tissues.

    Objectives: This study aims to evaluate serum levels of apelin in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome related to severity of presentation.

    Patients and Methods: The present study was conducted during the period from September 2014 until March 2015. Fifty-nine patients with ACS were included as (30 UA, 15 NSTEMI, & 14 STEMI) patients. Also the study included (28) apparently healthy persons served as control. Blood samples were obtained for measurements of Apelin by ELISA method.

    Results: Serum apelin levels were significantly decreased in whole group of patients with ACS (1846.1±320.9) ng/ml compared to control (2719.4±272.5) ng/ml (p< 0.05). Regarding patients' subgroups; serum apelin was lowest in STEMI (1729.0±480.0) ng/ml, NSTEMI (1816.0±289.0) ng/ml, & UA (1916.0±224.4) ng/ml when compared with control; respectively.

    Conclusion: Data obtained revealed a reduction in serum apelin levels in all patients groups especially STEMI, so it could be considered as a biochemical marker for evaluation of ACS.

    Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome, Unstable angina, ST-segment elevation MI, Non-ST- segment elevation MI, Apelin.

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  • Article title : Study the Effect of Cardamom Extracts on Lactobacilli in Comparison to Chlorohexidine gluconate and De-ionized water (in vitro study)  
    Description :


     Sara I. Khalil              *              BDS

    Wesal A. Al-Obaidi *                 BDS, MSc

    Wifaq M. Ali**                           MBchB, FICMS  



    Background: Various herbal extracts are known to provide therapeutic benefits in the oral cavity when used topically. One of these herbs is cardamom which is a dried fruit of the tall permanent herbaceous plant, have its place in the family Zingiberaceae.

    Objectives : Test the effect of green and black cardamom extracts on Lactobacilli  in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and de-ionized water.

    Materials and methods: Dried fruits of green and black cardamom were extracted by using alcohol 70% ethanol. Saliva was collected from seven volunteers. Agar well technique with different concentrations of green and black cardamom extracts was used to test the sensitivities of Lactobacilli, as well the effects of both cardamom extracts on viable counts of Lactobacilli.

    Results: Lactobacilli were sensitive to different concentrations of green and black cardamom extracts starting with (5%) to (40%) using agar well diffusion technique. Both types of cardamom extracts green and black were effective in inhibition of Lactobacilli but still weaker than chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%. Highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria were reported with cardamom extracts and chlorhexidine in comparison to neutral control after 2 hrs..

    Conclusions: Both types of cardamom (green and black) showed an effect on Lactobacilli but still less than chlorhexidine.

    Key words: Lactobacilli, black cardamom, green cardamom, chlorhexidine, de-ionized water.

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  • Article title : Biological Impact of Gold Nanoparticle on Estradaiol and Testosterone Levels in Sera of Human Males
    Description :

    Sura A. Abdulsattar*                 BSc, MSc


    Background: There is a little information on the potential nanoparticle risk to human health, particularly on the sex hormones.

    Objectives: the present study aims to investigate the impact of gold nanoparticles potential toxicity on the levels of sex hormones testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in sera of human males

    Patients and methods: a total of 25 healthy men volunteers aged (20-45) years participated. Four types of gold nanoparticles were used to study their impact on estradiol and testosterone levels.

    Results: The results indicated inhibiting effect of gold nanoparticles on E2 level and activating effect on T level .The low impact of T/E2 by gold nanoparticles was executed at 20µl serum.

    Conclusion: different types of gold nanoparticles have an impact on sex hormone binding to their receptors and thus effect on its level in the blood, hence affects the biological processes that are dependant on hormone concentration.

    Keywords: estradiol, testosterone, nanoparticle, gold, hormone.

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  • Article title : Assessment of endothelial dysfunction by flow mediated dilatation in patients with Coronary Artery Disease
    Description :

    Saba F.Salih*                                        MBChB, MSc physiology

    Najeeb H. Mohammed**                      PhD physiology    

    Abbas N. Muslim*                                 FRCP  

    Sarab H. Al-Misebawi***                     D.Radiology    



    Background: Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. It is a systemic process that simultaneously affects different vascular territories including coronary arteries. It is recommended that noninvasive approaches assessing endothelial function in peripheral vessels like flow mediated dilatation are indirectly representative of coronary vascular function.     

    Objectives: This study is aimed to assess endothelial dysfunction by using flow mediated dilatation in patients with coronary artery disease

    Patients and methods: 82 patients of either sex with an age range of 40-65years are involved in this study. Each patient was subjected to two tests; first test was the flow mediated dilatation percentage (FMD%) measurement to assess endothelial functional integrity and second one was coronary  computerized tomography angiography for measuring the percentage of coronary artery stenosis.                                                                                     

    Results:  the results of this study revealed that FMD% is inversely correlated with the percentage of coronary artery stenosis (p value <0.01). FMD% in patients having a single coronary vessel atheromatous stenosis (9.9±3.5) % was significantly lower than that of control subjects (15.3±7) %, p<0.0001.       

    Conclusion:  this study concludes that FMD% of brachial artery could be used as a marker for systemic endothelial functional integrity including that of coronary arteries.

    Keywords:  endothelial dysfunction, flow mediated dilatation (FMD %).

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  • Article title : Sirenomelia in an Iraqi twin: a case report
    Description :

    Moaied A. Hassan*            FICMS, DMAS



    Background: Sirenomelia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by fusion of the lower limbs giving a characteristic mermaid-like appearance to the affected fetus. It is commonly associated with gastrointestinal, genitourinary, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system defects.

    Objective : To  report  the  clinical  manifestations  of  an  extremely  rare  and complexmalformation along with the associated anomalies.

    Case report: A case of sirenomelia was reported in a one of a set of twin delivered at term by caesarean section to a 39 year old Iraqi mother. According to the search that has been done, it seems that this is the first reported case in this country. The following associated anomalies ( imperforate anus, absence of external genitourinary orifices, esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula, intestinal atresia and bilateral renal agenesis ) were observed.

    Conclusion: Sirenomelia is a rare and fatal congenital malformation. Still there is some controversy regarding its etiology, however there is an increasing belief that this complex malformation is distinct from the caudal regression syndrome. Survival depends on the presence  of normal renal function

    Keywords: Sirenomelia, mermaid, associated anomalies.

    File size : 507 KB
  • Article title : Effect of Some Polyphenolic Compounds on Biochemical                       Parameters in Leukemic Patients
    Description :


     Wafa F. Al-Taie*                    PhD

     Kismat M. Turki**                 PhD

     Zeinab M. AL-Rubaie*          PhD



    Background :Polyphenolic compounds are groups of naturally occurring compounds in different plants. They are promising product to protect, and prevent leukemia and many types of cancer by different mechanisms.

    Objectives: The present study designed to study the effect of polyphenolic compounds [Ellagic acid (EA), Tannic acid (TA) and Caffiec acid (CA)] on GOT,GPT activities and total protein TP concentration in all types of leukemia [acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloblasti leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL)],in addition to compare the potency of these compounds among each other.

    Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a hundred leukemic patients. In addition fifty healthy subjects age matched were chosen as control group. Transaminases (GOT and GPT) activities and total protein concentration  in sera of all studied groups were determined before and after addition of 10 mM (EA, TA and CA)

     Results: There is a significant increase in serum GOT,GPT activity and TP concentration  for all leukemic groups compared to control.  The elevated values of GOT, GPT activities and TP concentration in patients were returned to about normal values in most cases after addition of 10 mM (EA, TA and CA).

    Conclusion: Results showed the effectiveness of polyphenolic compounds (EA, TA and CA) in treatment of leukemia in vitro study , also, results revealed that EA was the most potent compound among the types of polyphenolic compounds studied in affecting the parameters to be close to normal values.

    Key words: polyphenolic compound,  leukemia , GOT ,GPT

    File size : 2 MB